Case Studies - Equipment

Pioneering Carbon Capture and Storage Project Back on Track with Rapid Mobilization

Carbon Capture and Storage Project A multinational investment company and an American energy corporation have embarked on constructing a ground-breaking direct air capture facility in the US Gulf Coast region. Their primary objective is to capture carbon directly from the...

Fabrication Oversight Requires Emergency Response

The asset owner and EPC materials teams had encountered a critical change in fabrication of a key proprietary component. The vessel had an asphalt coating specified and applied. This coating would have proved inadequate for the pure oxygen environment and temperature ranges required. This was compounded by the unique vertical construction of the process stream structure, requiring sequential assembly of its segments.

Fast Mobilization and Material Selection The project timeline was at stake, with over 100 workers on-site unable to proceed until the issue was addressed. Each day of delay was costing over $500k. The engineering team behind the project has contacted...
Strategic Decision-Making With a verbal agreement secured, after both technical and commercial approval, the IGS team swiftly moved into execution mode. The urgency stemmed from the sequential nature of the equipment’s construction, where each segment completion was contingent on the...
Two-Part Execution IGS execution strategy involved a two-staged work approach. The initial mobilization started on the 27th of December 2023 until the 2nd of January 2024 and focused on addressing critical work areas around internal piping systems. Working through the...
Challenges and Innovations The vessel, comprising two sections, required precision HVTS Technology. The spray-ability and speed of HVTS execution proved crucial in addressing complex areas, where traditional welding would have been impractical.

Project Impact and Future Prospects

The successful and expedited completion of the project averted significant weeks of lost time for all stakeholders involved on the project. The project and HVTS execution emphasized the critical role this played in keeping the project on schedule and served as a testament to the quick decision making of the project managers. IGS’ operations excellence played a key role in turning this emergent work into a success story in the Carbon Capture market.

How can IGS’ HVTS Services deliver value? I’m here to help JanAlbert Schutte IGS Subject Matter Expert
Related Case Studies: IGS Facilitates Significant Reduction in Emissions at Utility Plant ½ The Cost and ⅓ The Application Time in LP Separator Renewables Conversion Welding Alternative Achieves 50% Savings in Renewables Conversion
Related Questions: What is high velocity thermal spray? How does corrosion in carbon capture and storage occur? How to stop corrosion in CCS projects?
On-site Thermal Spray Coating Services from IGS: High Velocity Thermal Spray (HVTS) IGS TUFFss ONLINE TSA Metalspray® Hexavalent Chromium Filter System: IGS ClearStream

Gas Turbine Corrosion Mitigated with HVTS Amstar Application

Introduction IGS was invited to apply HVTS Amstar cladding onto gas turbine components at a private power plant in the Middle East in collaboration with the OEM.

Gas Turbine Components HT Corrosion

Base metal spalling caused premature failure of the blades and other downstream components resulting in frequent outages and high maintenance costs.

Solution: IGS HVTS Amstar Cladding

IGS used proprietary superalloy Amstar™ (US patent no. 7,645,493) specifically designed to protect from high temperature corrosion. This material was qualified over multi-year test and validation program with OEMs supported by the IGS’ ISO 9001-2015 Certified Research & Development Center in Richmond, VA. Detailed coating specification was developed by the OEM in collaboration with IGS Engineering.

How it Works

1. PREPARATION

Extensive tooling, masking and isolation equipment developed for each frame and outage type

2. DESIGN REVIEW

Design reviews held with OEM Casings Engineers for each application

3. SURFACE PREPARATION

Specialized surface preparation technologies for rotor-in and rotor-out configurations

4. IGS CLEARSTREAM VENTILATION

IGS ClearStream, custom filtration system (US Patent no. 8,460,443 B2) available for fume and dust capture.

5. TURNKEY APPLICATION

IGS HVTS is applied by experienced field teams following strict procedures developed in collaboration with the OEMs & IGS R&D Centre.

Outcome

IGS HVTS turnkey solution was applied in situ and stopped oxidation significantly reducing recurring maintenance costs. The next project to protect another unit has been scheduled to be completed in 10 months’ time.

How can IGS’ HVTS Services deliver value? I’m here to help JanAlbert Schutte IGS Subject Matter Expert
Related Case Studies: IGS ClearStream Chromium-6 Filtration for Safe HVTS Application Gas Turbine Corrosion Mitigated by HVTS and Hex Chrome Filtration System
Related Questions: What is high velocity thermal spray? What is the difference between HVTS and Amstar? What are the key features of Amstar? What happened to Amstar?
On-site Thermal Spray Coating Services from IGS: High Velocity Thermal Spray (HVTS) IGS TUFFss ONLINE TSA Metalspray® Hexavalent Chromium Filter System: IGS ClearStream

IGS ClearStream Chromium-6 Filtration for Safe HVTS Application

Introduction: Gas Turbine Corrosion IGS was invited to apply HVTS cladding to mitigate high-temperature corrosion on a high efficiency, air-cooled gas turbine installed at a power & light facility in the United States.

High-Temperature Gas Turbine Corrosion

The turbine’s base metal spalling challenges were leading to premature failure of the blades and other downstream parts. This was increasing outage frequency and cost. Affected areas included the upper half CDC, upper half OTS, six upper and lower half diffusers, upper and lower inner barrel, lower half CDC combustion cans and five armway covers.

Surface Preparation

The surface condition of the turbine components as received was consistent with the problem description provided by the asset owner. The surface exhibited corrosion and evidence of spallation due to high temperature exposure. No additional grinding was required as the initial blast application by IGS was sufficient surface preparation for HVTS application.

Ventilation and Filtration In compliance with the IGS Hexavalent Chromium Exposure Control Plan, the company utilized radial fans with ClearStream filtration systems. The system features a HEPA filter in the upper and lower half enclosures providing adequate ventilation. Flexible ducting...

HVTS Application

The High Velocity Thermal Spray (HVTS) process included true high velocity application using IGS’s proprietary Metalspray® 3000 Low Stress application equipment. This cutting-edge technology allowed IGS to apply cladding with much greater density and decreased permeability, while keeping internal cladding stresses low.

In this process, IGS achieved the smallest possible thermal spray particle sizes and applied them in as dense a pattern as possible. This type of application increases the distance of pathways leading from the surface of the thermal spray to the substrate beneath. Permeation levels are eliminated and erosion resistance is increased.

Future Projects IGS engineers confirmed the viability of a full lower-half coating plan (focusing on the CDC and OTS).

Gas Turbine Corrosion Mitigated by HVTS and Hex Chrome Filtration System

Introduction IGS was invited to apply HVTS cladding to mitigate gas turbine corrosion caused by high-temperatures. The high efficiency, air-cooled gas turbine is installed at an electricity, water and gas authority facility in the Middle East.

High-Temperature Gas Turbine Corrosion

High temperature gas turbine corrosion on unprotected casing surfaces causes wear and plugging. Protecting turbine components with high nobility cladding protects them from HT corrosion. This turbine’s upper and lower half OTS and CDC suffered base metal spalling challenges with a total affected area of more than 26m2 .

Turbine Surface Preparation and Blasting

The initial condition of the turbine components was acceptable. Pitting was discovered on the upper half OTS after clean blasting. Minor pencil grinding was required for the upper half OTS substrate to comply with IGS’ surface acceptance criteria. No additional grinding was required on the upper half CDC and lower half OTS and CDC as the initial blasting application by IGS was sufficient surface preparation for HVTS application.

Ventilation and Chromium-6 Filtration

In compliance with the IGS Hexavalent Chromium Exposure Control Plan, the company utilized radial fans with ClearStream filtration systems containing a HEPA filter in the upper half and lower half enclosures that provided adequate ventilation. IGS installed and used special hexavalent contamination booths and protocols throughout the project execution to reduce the risk of external contamination within the work area.

IGS vacuumed and removed all hazardous material into drums for disposals. Used filters were placed in 6 hazmat filter bag modules and stored in the same location as the barrels containing the hazardous waste. Hexavalent Chromium measurements were taken at the ducting outlet of the upper half and lower half enclosure.

HVTS Application

The High Velocity Thermal Spray (HVTS) process included true high velocity application using IGS’s proprietary Metalspray 3000 Low Stress equipment. This cutting-edge technology allowed IGS to apply cladding with much greater density and decreased permeability, while keeping internal cladding stresses low.

IGS achieved the smallest possible thermal spray particle sizes and applied them in as dense a pattern as possible. This type of application increases the distance of pathways leading from the surface of the thermal spray to the substrate beneath. Permeation levels were virtually eliminated and erosion resistance increased.

Project Conclusion The project was executed successfully without any major issues or concerns. The gas turbine is now protected from oxidation, significantly reducing any future recurring maintenance costs.
I’m here to help JanAlbert Schutte IGS Subject Matter Expert
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Proactive CFB Boiler Maintenance Saves $ Millions and Triples Run Cycles

CFB Boiler Protected with IGS SMARTGard® This coal-burning boiler was commissioned in 1998 with an 11,450 sqft (1064 sq.m.) heating surface and 1.2 million pounds per hour (544 t/h) steaming cap. IGS first applied HVTS in 2020 and monitored the...
PROBLEM: The annual cost from forced outages, RIK, general maintenance and electrical cost associated with each unit could reach an average of 8-12 Million dollars. SOLUTION: IGS SMARTGard® addressed the problems and increased the run cycles from 4-6 months to...
1. Before IGS SMARTGard® See the bare tube condition prior to the IGS SMARTGard® HVTS application. Notice hard edges around discontinuity from erosion damage where ash build-up has deviated material flow into the unprotected substrate.  
2. IGS HVTS Applied In order to prevent further substrate wastage IGS has cladded the area with HVTS as opposed to having to cut and replace tubes. Pictured is the area of low tube thickness now protected by IGS cladding....
3. Ceramic Top Coat Once the cladding process has been completed, IGS applies a proprietary ceramic top coat as a wear indicator during future outage inspections to help navigate future coating plans.  
4. After a 14-Month Run Cycle The coated area after a 14-month run cycle appears on the right. The presence of ceramic top coat (Green) can still be identified meaning underlying thermal spray cladding is still at 100% as-applied condition....
The Benefits of SMARTGard® HVTS cladding reduces tube wear and increases overall production. This reduces costs associated with maintenance from both planned maintenance and forced outages. Reducing the need for welding and eliminating the requirement for refractory in some areas...
I’m here to help Colin Bateman IGS Subject Matter Expert

SMARTGard®: Weld Overlay Alternative for Boiler Pressure Parts

A waste-to-energy plant in Turin, Italy, was preparing for an outage on one of their lines. They were waiting for approval from the notified body to carry out the weld overlay. The outage was nearing, and the approval was yet...
Power Plant
Corrosion of the Boiler Pressure Parts The plant, built by CNIM, was commissioned in 2014. Following several years in operation, they noticed corrosion in the second pass of the boiler. Alloy 625 weld overlay has already been installed in the...
Selecting a Suitable Solution IGS SMARTGard® HVTS was selected for several reasons. Strong global references in similar applications supported by laboratory testing. HVTS is not a welding process – the pressure part temperature stays below 150C during the application, therefore,...

Plant Replaces Weld Overlay in its CFB Boiler

This CFB boiler built in the mid-1990s is designed to burn anthracite coal, hazardous waste coal piles located throughout Pennsylvania. The plant observed severe erosion and metal wastage on the boiler tube due to how these combustors operate. Over the...

SMARTGard® Thermal Spray Stops Alloy T24 Fireside Corrosion in Supercritical Boiler

This Power Plant provides steam to nearby industrial facilities using sustainable biomass (such as SBP, GGL, FSC, and PEFC) and industrial by-products (such as bio-propane) to generate power and heat.
SUPERCRITICAL BOILER The boiler has five rows of six burners on two sides. These burners are fed with coal, bio-propane, wood, and MBM (Meat and Bone Meal) – animal residue foam injected into the boiler. MBM is very erosive, so...
A SUPER ALLOY T24 BOILER The unique feature of this boiler is that it is one of the first boilers manufactured with alloy T24. T24 material is a novel superalloy, designed for strength at high temperatures that does not require...
ALLOY T24 WELDING ISSUES Welding this superalloy is difficult, especially without annealing or post-weld heat treatment. Non-alloy steel, a material used to produce typical boiler tubes, PH 265GH, is the easiest material to weld. The superheater material, 10CrMo9-10, is known...
As a result, these first boilers manufactured with T24 suffered many leaks after just a few hundred hours of operation. Welding experts from VGA and other parties involved helped them find the solution, enabling them to erect such supercritical boilers...
TESTING HVTS SUPERALLOY PROTECTION As the plant continued having multiple stoppages due to tube leaks, in 2019, they decided to apply a protective cladding onto a test area to evaluate its performance. IGS SMARTGard® HVTS was chosen for this on-site...
SMARTGard®: IGS HVTS – High-Velocity Thermal Spray HVTS cladding was also applied onto superheater hanging tubes facing soot blowers. Test areas were installed onto various locations of tube bundles as an alternative to thick metal protection shields.
A LEAK OCCURRED DURING HVTS TESTING After installing the trial HVTS application in August 2019, another forced unexpected shutdown due to a tube leak occurred in December that year. Although initially it was suspected to be in the IGS clad...
QUALITY INSPECTION PROGRAMME UT Quality inspected HVTS cladding and unprotected tubes. They performed tube scanning using a PEC Scan, Pulsed Eddy Current scanning, that delivers specific tube thickness mapping. This inspection was conducted in 2019 and again in 2021. By...
INSPECTION DISCREPANCIES AND RESULTS When comparing inspection results between 2019 and 2021, the inspection company immediately noticed that some areas appeared to have gained thickness. Cyril Narjoz, IGS Boiler Reliability Expert, commented:
“You need to keep in mind that first of all, you never read the same point two years later, it’s impossible. Even when you do the reading on the same spot, during the same inspection or the day later, you...
The inspection results were matched with the positioning of the HVTS cladded area. It was a challenge because it didn’t match the red area or the colored area of the thinning. Moreover, to make it a little more complicated, in...
“Nevertheless, what we can see in the area where we applied the HVTS the cladding, there’s much less thinning. And above the area, we have this red zone where we can notice up to nearly one millimeter per year loss...
FUTURE-PROOFING THE BOILER Initially, prior to evaluating the readings, the plant had commissioned IGS to expand their HVTS cladding scope to protect a 35 m² surface area finishing the band and protecting a band below. However, after evaluating the readings...
HVTS APPLICATION IN 2021 The expanded scope was completed in record time by IGS utilizing additional operational resources to speed up the process, with work proceeding simultaneously on several levels. Plant representative said: “We really appreciated IGS’ flexibility during the...
SUPERHEATER TUBES This project’s second exciting part included the hanging superheater tube bundle with steam at 320 bar / 5400C. These tubes face the soot blowers that are operated at regular intervals to clean deposits of the tube surfaces. Welded...
Cyril Narjoz commented: “Cladding supplied by a different vendor was also applied and tested in a similar area and performed well.  The key difference is – these other tests were sprayed in the workshop before being installed in the boiler....
CONCLUSION As T24 material is extremely challenging to weld. One of the major benefits of the IGS HVTS solution is that no welding is involved in its application. Since HVTS is not welded, it does not generate any alteration to...
I’m here to help Colin Bateman IGS Subject Matter Expert